Types of Base Notes in Perfume

  • Amber – Amber is a very popular option as a base note since it offers excellent fixative properties. Amber offers a woody and warm scent that is liked by many people. It is naturally extracted from the resin of the fir-tree.
  • Sandalwood – The sandalwood compound is an expensive fragrant ingredient and listed in many high-end perfumes. It is naturally sourced from the sandalwood tree, which grows in India and Australia. There are many perfumes that are based entirely on the sandalwood fragrance.
  • Tonka bean – This perfume compound is sourced from the South American tonka tree and smells much like marzipan and caramel to give an oriental flavor. Because of its rich and sweet scent, the tonka bean ingredient is a common choice in fragrances aimed at the younger market.
  • Musk – Similar to the tonka bean and amber, musk is one of most favored ingredients to use as a base note in perfumes. It was originally sourced from the Himalayan musk deer, but the modern version is synthetically produced in the laboratory. Musk can vary in strength and range from mild to quite strong.
  • Ambergris – Ambergris was originally sourced from sperm whales. But this is no long an acceptable practice and a synthetic version is created in the laboratory to mimic this warm and pleasant fragrance.
  • Opoponax – Opoponax (also called sweet myrrh) is a perfume ingredient that has a rich honey-like aroma. This compound has long-standing history in perfumes and incense and has been in use since Biblical times.

Types of Essential Oils in Perfume


Lavender is appreciated for its ability to offer a calming and restful chemical. Any fragrance product that claims to promote relaxation is certain to include the lavender ingredient.


This rich essential oil is a common ingredient in the fragrances labeled feminine or romantic. Jasmine has a very distinct and heavy smell and should be used in moderation to avoid being overpowering. Light and fresh perfumes for the spring and summer often include this essential oil.


Sandalwood is sourced from trees primarily in India. It is over harvested which makes it one of the more expensive oils and likely to feature in the high-end or designer fragrances. Sandalwood oil is warm and woody and common in fragrances intended for men and women.


Lemongrass is quite similar to bergamot oil. They are both intended for perfumes labeled invigorating or energizing. This essential oil is common in the Middle Eastern and Asian fragrances.


Rose oil is a key element in fragrance products that aim to promote balance and relaxation. This oil is difficult to source and more valuable than many of the alternative oils in the market. For this reason, the oil is often individually named on the perfume bottle. A more cost-effective option is rose-water. This may feature in the perfumes at the lower end of the market.

Common Stabilizers and Perfume Bases

Ethyl Alcohol

A large percentage of the perfumes in the market include a base of ethyl alcohol (also called pure alcohol or ethanol). The base compound is known for its ability to vaporize quickly. It is highly effective at holding the perfume compound and can easily dissolve into the skin. Also, there is an organic alternative known as denatured alcohol.


The Coumarin ingredient is added to perfume to help increase the strength and quality of the aroma. Coumarin is naturally sourced from certain beans, sweet grass and cassia bark. It is also synthetically produced. This chemical has a light sweet aroma that helps with boosting the scent profile of the compounds, especially those with a musk and spice smell.

Benzyl Benzoate

Benzyl benzoate (also called benzyl alcohol or benzoic acid) is a common stabilizer or fixative in a long list of perfumes. It is naturally sourced from many species of plants. Once the compound is added to the perfumes ingredient, it can help to increase the level of stability. Benzyl benzoate is highly effective at retaining the scent profile and will ensure the fragrance stays the same for many years.


The phthalates compound (also known as diethyl phthalate) is another of the stabilizers used in perfume. This is a very common element in perfume and is likely to feature in about 65% of the fragrances in the market. It functions similar to benzyl benzoate and helps to preserve the aroma profile of the perfume.

Matching the Perfume Scent

Personal preference – Consider personal preferences in the search for the right perfume. For those that prefer a smell associated with flowers, a floral based perfume like jasmine, roses, or gardenia is certain to appeal. Some of the heavy-scented fragrances can be quite off-putting; especially those can leave you with a headache. A more fresh and light smell comes from the fruity tones. These fresh perfumes include notes related to watermelon, berries, apple, mint and citrus. Also, a spicy scent is certain to appeal to those searching a calming effort.

Skin type – Skin type can have a significant impact on the fragrant quality and smell of the perfume. It helps to test the various perfumes to see which one can offer the desired scent and longevity. A skin type that is quite oily can hold the fragrance a lot longer than the relatively dry skin. But it is possible to prolong the effects of perfume on dry skin. This is achieved by applying a base layer like a matching lotion or similar non-scented moisturizer. Apply the perfume to the dry lotion and it should last longer.

Body acidity – The level of body acidity throughout the body can vary. This can influence the way the body reacts to perfume. The body has a higher level of well-being and health when the pH range is kept within the region of 7.35 to 7.45. Many home test kits are available to check the body acidity. One of the effective ways to maintain the body’s pH levels is through a well-planned diet.

Also, certain foods like garlic and onion can impact the body chemistry and can change the smell of the fragrance. Strong smells like garlic can escape through the skins pores. This can smell quite unpleasant when mixed with perfume.

Temperature Can Affect Perfume


Perfume comes in a variety of colors, such as brown, gold and clear. The color of perfume is directly related to the synthetic or natural ingredients used in the process of making the perfume. This is likely to result in noticeable changes if left exposed to heat. The color can become more opaque or darken in appearance.


The most defining characteristic of a bottle of perfume is its smell. A perfume that experiences too much heat exposure is likely to develop a quite musty aroma. The impact on the perfume can vary with the different notes. It is the top notes that are affected the most. The top note is the most defining quality and lasts for the first 5 to 15 minutes after applying the perfume. Prolonged exposure to heat can mean the top note is less familiar, goes sour, or grows sharper. If left exposed for too long the scent of the perfume is certain to fade and become undetectable.


The value of a bottle of perfume can be significantly reduced if left exposed to hot temperatures. Since heat can cause damage to the fragrance and appearance, a perfume isn’t likely to have such an attractive sell-on price. This point is especially important if running a perfume business. Store the perfume in the proper way to avoid issues that could have a negative impact on the major characteristics of the perfume.

Storing perfume

A bottle of perfume is best kept in a cool area of the home away from direct sunlight. Ideally, keep the perfume in its original retail box and place in a dresser or closet drawer. Avoid leaving the perfume on display on a window sill or dresser since this increase the chance of being exposed to sunlight for long periods during the day. Also, avoid leaving the perfume in the bath or shower room since this will mean it is exposed to repeated cycles of steam and heat. Make sure the designated spot for storing the perfume is kept at 70° or below.